Brief description  about Online courses   join in Online courses

Shell scripting,Programming Languages and Utilities and The X Window System

Karishma  Pujari
Karishma Pujari
Tech Support

Computer understands the language of 0's and 1's called binary language. In early days of computing, instruction are provided using binary language, which is difficult for all of us, to read and write. So in Os there is special program called Shell. Shell accepts your instruction or commands in English (mostly) and if its a valid command, it is pass to kernel. A shell script is a script written for the shell, or command line interpreter, of an operating system. It is often considered a simple domain-specific programming language. Typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, and printing text.

Linux provides a complete UNIX programming environment, including all the standard libraries, programming tools, compilers, and debuggers that you would expect to find on other Unix systems. The most commonly used compiler on Linux is the GNU’s Compiler Collection, or gcc. Gcc is capable of compiling C, C++, Chill ( A programming language mainly used for telecommunications), FORTRAN, and Java. Within the Unix software development world, applications and systems programming is usually done in C or C++, and gcc is one of the best C/C++ compilers around, supporting many advanced features and optimizations.

Java is an object-oriented programming language and runtime environment that supports a diverse range of applications such as web page applets, Internet based distributed systems, database connectivity, and more. Java is fully supported under Linux. Some of the most popular and interesting tools associated with Java are open source. These include Eclipse, an integrated development environment (IDE) that is extendable to almost anything through plugins.

Gcc is also capable of compiling Java programs directly to executables, and includes limited support for the standard JDK libraries

Another important component o Linux is its graphical user interface, the X Windows System. Unix was originally a mouse-less, text-based system which is very sophisticated.

The X Windows System (simply called X) was developed as part of MIT’s Project Athena, which it began in 1984. By 1988, MIT released X to the public. The Xfree86 Project, Inc., in cooperation with the X Consortium, distributes a version of X that runs on Intel architecture PCs.

X is a unique graphical user interface in three major respects:

  • X integrates with a computer network, letting users access local and remote applications. For example, X lets you open a window that represents an application running on a remote host.
  • X lets you configure its look and feel to an amazing degree. To do so, you run a special application-­­--­ called a window manager---on top of X. a variety of window managers is available, including some that closely mimic the look and feel of Microsoft Windows. Desktop managers further extend X by providing common applications such as file browsers, menus and control panels. GNOME and KDE are the most popular Linux desktop managers.
  • X is optional. Systems used as servers are often configured without a GUI, saving resources to serve client requests.
Write your comment now