10 Programming Languages That Can Redefine IT

2. Dart

JavaScript is used to add basic interactivity to Web pages, but doesn’t work well when the application has thousands of lines of code. That's why Google created Dart. It hopes this will change the way Web programming is done.

Where JavaScript is a prototype-based language, objects in Dart are defined using classes and interfaces, as in C++ or Java. It also uses C-like syntax and keywords. Dart also allows programmers to optionally declare variables with static types. Dart is designed to be familiar, dynamic, and fluid as JavaScript and also allow developers to write code that is faster, easier to maintain, and less vulnerable to bugs.

Currently the only way to run client-side Dart code so far is to cross-compile it to JavaScript. Even then it doesn't work with every browser.

3. Ceylon

Many believe that Ceylon is meant to be a Java killer, though its developer Gavin King denied it. King is also the creator of the Hibernate object-relational mapping framework for Java. He likes Java, but he thinks there are a lot of shortcomings, like its lack of first-class and higher-order functions, its poor support for meta-programming, clumsy SDK and absence of a declarative syntax for structured data definition. He developed Ceylon with an aim to solve all these problems.

King doesn’t plan to develop a new Virtual Machine but will use JVM. Though, he intends to create a new Ceylon SDK to replace the Java SDK.