World Environment Day '22 - The Womb of Existence

World Environment Day '22 - The Womb of Existence
The caressing breeze, the delightful aroma, the visually pleasing flowers of mesmerizing colours, the overwhelming sea, the silent mountains, none but all a gift of nature. The reason behind the very existence of the Flora and Fauna. Humans with the most developed brain comparatively, should nurture the nature and the environment around them, by thinking cautiously and consciously about their own home, not many but "Only one earth." The earth is home to many but belongs to none, it has provided shelter to a vast population of not just humans but animals and plants also, now as "mentally and physically" aware living beings, it is the responsibility of every human to not plunder but nurture the environment.  
Led by the United Nations Environment Programme and held annually on the 5th of June since 1974, World Environment Day is the largest global platform for environmental public outreach. It is celebrated by millions of people around the globe. Sweden, this year has the golden opportunity to host it. Let us not forget that time is the only physical quantity which is never negative, so we are all running out of time, and it has become the need of nature to be restored now. Nature is suffering the wounds it is not responsible for; if actions to protect the environment are not taken now, all living species that belong to nature may suffer severely. Exposure to air pollution beyond safe guidelines will increase by 50% within the decade, and plastic waste flowing into aquatic ecosystems will nearly triple by 2040. If now actions are not taken, it will be too late.
Focusing on the theme of the year 2022, "Only one earth", it is crucial that we understand the importance of the "essence of nature" and the ways in which "nature supports life." The slogan " Only one earth" was first used for the first United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm in the year 1972. And now, after five decades, Sweden is hosting Stockholm+50 from 2nd to 3rd June and World Environment Day on 5th June.
The condition of the environment is tormenting, and it is not hidden. Instead, it has now become the truth of the health of every living being. People are now weaker than their previous generation. The food that is consumed, and the air that we breathe is nothing but juggling our lives and health. The environment is facing challenges on various areas, let us look into a few:
Loss of Biodiversity:
Species and habitats are becoming extinct due to human activity. This causes an imbalance in the natural processes of pollination or reproduction. It is one of the major threats to the ecosystem. It is the decline or disappearance of biological diversity, understood as the variety of living things that inhabit the planet, its different levels of biological organisation and their respective genetic variability as well as the natural patterns present in the ecosystem. The major reasons behind the biodiversity loss can be,  habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation(extreme hunting or fishing pressure), pollution, and climate change associated with global warming.
The Living Planet Report 2020,  published by WWF after two years, revealed a global species loss of 68 percent in less than 50 years. Such a catastrophic decline has never been witnessed before. Converting land for agriculture has caused  70 percent of global biodiversity loss and half of all loss in tree covers. 
Climate Change:
Climate change refers to the long-term shifts in temperatures and weather patterns. These shifts may be natural, but since the 1800s, human activities have been the primary reason for climate change. Earth's temperature started rising by 0.14 degree Fahrenheit( 0.08 degree Celsius) from per decade since 1800, and the rate of warming over the past 40 years is more than twice of that, 0.32 degree Fahrenheit (0.18 degree Celsius) per decade since 1981. The year 2020 was the second warmest year according to a record by NOAA's temperature data and land areas were recorded as warm.  
Climate change threatens people with food and water scarcity, increased flooding, extreme heat, more disease, and ultimately economic loss. This can result in human migration and conflict. The World Health Organization has named Climate change as the greatest threat the environment is facing.
The term "pollution" has become a part of our lives now. Every corner of the world, big or small, densely populated or scarcely populated,  is polluted. The harmful emissions from industries, vehicles, etc., are making it toxic for living beings to survive. The pollution is caused by "pollutants," which can be natural like volcanic ash, etc. or man-made like deposits from industries, etc. There are several types of pollution, among which air pollution, noise pollution, and plastic pollution are commonly found.
Air pollution is the leading environmental risk to health. According to a World Bank Publication, air pollution cost the globe an estimated $8.1 trillion in 2019, equivalent to 6.1 percent of global GDP. 95 percent of the deaths are caused by air pollution occurring in low-and-middle-income countries. In individual countries, the economic burden of pollution associated with premature mortality and morbidity is also significant, equivalent to 5 to 14 percent of countries' GDP.
Human & Home
The strategy planned by UNEP in order to protect the environment is a relief to nature and those that belong to it. " For people and planet: the UNEP strategy for 2022-2025," points out to three-interconnected crises, climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution; these three together are putting global economic and social well-being at risk. They undermine opportunities to reduce poverty and improve lives, and they complicate the response to the COVID-19 crisis.
The Medium Term (MTS) is UNEP's vision for reversing that trajectory. The MTS articulate UNEP's role in delivering the promises of the 2030 agenda, as well as the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) and its outcome document," The Future We Want."The strategy outlines how UNEP will strengthen the environmental dimension of the 2030 Agenda during the period 2022-2025, supporting countries to deliver on their environmental commitments under international agreements.
UNEP will step into this period by driving transformation and multi-stakeholder action that targets the causes of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution. In doing so, UNEP will ensure that science remains at the centre of decision-making processes and that the environmental rule of law continues to underpin global environmental governance. UNEP will boost efforts to use digital technologies for inclusive, transparent and innovative outcomes. 
Recognizing the complexity and interconnectedness of climate change, biodiversity loss and pollution, the MTS employs seven interlinked sub-programmes for action, they are, Climate Action, Chemical and Pollution Action, Nature Action, Science Policy, Environmental Governance, Finance and Economic Transformations and Digital Transformations. 
A View of the Indian Environment
India is a country of great history and rich-literature, with different culture adding colours to its diversity, yet lacking in environmental condition. In India the pollution and environmental degradation levels are alarming, the major reasons being, poverty, deforestation, and industrial development without adequate standard principles for conservation and sheer negligence. Fortunately, the government has taken actions to preserve the nature and protect the environment in time, and at present it has become a top priority. Government has enacted acts regulations to diminish the rising danger of nature. Various schemes and policies for the conservation of environment has been proposed by the government. To make the process rapid, great emphasis must be paid to environmental education, people's participation, and population control.
Steps taken by the Indian Government for conservation of environment
The "Nagar Van Udyan Scheme" was created with a vision, to develop one City forest for each city. Municipal Corporations or Class 1 cities to accommodate a wholesome health environment, and contribute to the growth of green, clean and sustainable India. The main objective is to create 200 City Forests and spread awareness among people regarding plants and biodiversity.
The famous "Swacch Bharat Abhiyan," was a mass movement initiated by the Prime minister of India, Mr. Narendra Modi, in 2014. The 'Abhiyan' aims at the cleanliness of the environment. It was made with an intension of creating a sense of responsibility among people to achieve Mahatma Gandhi's aim for clean India. The main objective of the Abhiyan is to recover the resources through the process of recycling, and also to create employment in the process.
Project Tiger, it was adopted by the Government in the year 1973, in order to protect the tigers and their number from decreasing. The scheme is sponsored by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It also assists the tiger states for tiger conservation. The objectives of this projects are, to protect and restore habitat, monitor them day-to-day, eco-development for local people, and relocation of the humans from the habitats of tigers.
The Government of India initiated the National Wetland Conservation Programme(NWCP) to conserve and make acute use wetlands in the country, therefore, preventing the further degradation. The scheme was introduced with objectives of undertaking extensive conservation measures in the wetlands that need immediate support.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change launched a programme named the "Green Skill Development Programme" in June 2017. Green skills include conserving and protecting nature and the beauty of it, and also to create an awareness among the youth to develop skills and gain experience. One of the aim of this programme was also to create employment in the country.
There are several other schemes that help the Government of India to preserve and protect the environment. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change implemented the National River Conservation Programme, Green India Mission, National Afforestation Programme, National Coastal Management Programme, National Mission on Himalayan Studies under Climate Change Programme under the Central Sector and Centrally Sponsored Schemes of Government of India. 
The schemes act as corrective measures for the conservation of the environment and the viable development of ecosystems. The Ministry also monitors the implementation of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification(UNCCD) and has been carrying out enabling activities and other obligations of the Convention. 
Conservation of Environment-A Necessity 
Conservation of Environment has become a demand of time, as it has a great impact on human health, both in preventing and the emergence of infectious disease. Having wild habitat preclude the transmission of contagious diseases from animals to humans. Also, the maximum amount of medicine that we use as humans are derived from chemicals that are produced by animals and plants. Therefore by protecting and conserving nature, we protect the whole of humankind and maintain the balance of the ecosystem. It is in our best interest that we protect and preserve nature because the exploitation of the natural habitat may lead to scarcity in the supply of food and water and a rise in the level of pollution and global warming, affecting human life on the planet adversely.