Green house(monitoring & controlling of envornmental parameters like temperature ,light ,
humidity & soil moisture)
Synopsis
1 . Introduction We live in a world where everything can be controlled and operated automatically, but there are still a few important sectors in our country where automation has not been adopted or not been put to a full-fledged use, perhaps because of several reasons one such reason is cost. One such field is that of agriculture. Agriculture has been one of the primary occupations of man since early civilizations and even today manual interventions in farming are inevitable. Greenhouses form an important part of the agriculture and horticulture sectors in our country as they can be used to grow plants under controlled climatic conditions for optimum produce. Automating a greenhouse envisages monitoring and controlling of the climatic parameters which directly or indirectly govern the plant growth and hence their produce. Automation is process control of industrial machinery and processes, thereby replacing human operators. 1 . 1 . Proposed model for automation of greenhouse The proposed system is an embedded system which will closely monitor and control the microclimatic parameters of a greenhouse on a regular basis round the clock for cultivation of crops or specific plant species which could maximize their production over the whole crop growth season and to eliminate the difficulties involved in the system by reducing human intervention to the best possible extent. The system comprises of sensors, analog to digital converter, microcontroller and actuators. When any of the above mentioned climatic parameters cross a safety threshold which has to be maintained to protect the crops, the sensors sense the change and the microcontroller reads this from the data at its input ports after being converted to a digital form by the adc. The microcontroller then performs the needed actions by employing relays until the strayed-out parameter has been brought back to its optimum level. Since a microcontroller is used as the heart of the system, it makes the set-up low-cost and effective nevertheless. As the system also employs an lcd display for continuously alerting the user about the condition inside the greenhouse, the entire set-up becomes user friendly. Thus, this system eliminates the drawbacks of the existing set-ups mentioned in the previous section and is designed as an easy to maintain, flexible and low cost solution. 2 . Basic model of the system Fig. 2 . 1 block diagram of the system 2 . 1 parts/ components of the system: • sensors (data acquisition system) • temperature sensor (lm35) • humidity sensor (hih4000) • light sensor (ldr) • moisture sensor • analog to digital converter ( adc 0808/0809) • microcontroller (at89s52) • liquid crystal display (hitachi’s hd44780) • actuators — relays • devices controlled • water pump (simulated as a bulb) • sprayer (simulated as a bulb) • cooler (simulated as a fan) • artificial lights (simulated as 2 bulbs) • buzzer 2 . 1 . 1 transducers (data acquisition system): This part of the system consists of various sensors, namely soil moisture, humidity, temperature and light. These sensors sense various parameters- temperature, humidity, soil , moisture and light intensity and are then sent to the analog to digital converter. 2 . 1 . 2 . Analog to digital con verder (adc): The analog parameters measured by the sensors are then converted to corresponding digital values by the adc. 2 . 1 . 3 . Microcontroller: The microcontroller is the heart of the proposed embedded system. It constantly monitors the digitized parameters of the various sensors and verifies them with the predefined threshold values and checks if any corrective action is to be taken for the condition at that instant of time. In case such a situation arises, it activates the actuators to perform a controlled operation. 2 . 1 . 4 . Actuators: An array of actuators can be used in the system such as relays, contactors, and change over switches etc. They are used to turn on ac devices such as motors, coolers, pumps, fogging machines, sprayers. For the purpose of demonstration relays have been used to drive ac bulbs to simulate actuators and ac devices. A complete working system can be realized by simply replacing these simulation devices by the actual devices. 2 . 1 . 5 . Display unit: A liquid crystal display is used to indicate the present status of parameters and the respective ac devises (simulated using bulbs). The information is displayed in two modes which can be selected using a push button switch which toggles between the modes. Any display can be interfaced to the system with respective changes in driver circuitry and code. 3 . Flow chart representing the working of the system Circuit diagram of the system Advantages and disadvantages Advantages 1 . Sensors used have high sensitivity and are easy to handle. 2 . Low cost system, providing maximum automation. 3 . Closed loop design prevents any chances of disturbing the greenhouse environment. 4 . User is indicated for changes in actuator state thereby giving an option for manual override. 5 . Low maintenance and low power consumption. 6 . The system is more compact compared to the existing ones, hence is easily portable. 7 . Can be used for different plant species by making minor changes in the ambient environmental parameters. 8 . Can be easily modified for improving the setup and adding new features. 9 . Labour saving. 10. Provides a user-friendly interface hence will have a greater acceptance by the technologically unskilled workers. 11. In response to the sensors, the system will adjust the heating, fans, lighting, irrigation, irnmediately, hence protect greenhouse from damage. 12. Malfunctioning of single sensor will not affect the whole system. 13. Natural resource like water saved to a great extent. Disadvantages 1 . Complete automation in terms of pest and insect detection and eradication cannot be achieved. 2 . No self-test system to detect malfunction of sensors. 3 . Requires uninterrupted power supply. 4 . Facility to remotely monitor the greenhouse is not possible. Scope for further development 1) the performance of the system can be further improved in terms of the operating speed, memory capacity, instruction cycle period of the microcontroller by using other controllers such as avrs and pics. The number of channels can be increased to interface more number of sensors which is possible by using advanced versions of microcontrollers. 2) the system can be modified with the use of a data logger and a graphical lcd Panel showing the measured sensor data over a period of time. 3) a speaking voice alarm could be used instead of the normal buzzer. 4) this system can be connected to communication devices such as modems, cellular phones or satellite terminal to enable the remote collection of recorded data or alarming of certain parameters. 5) the device can be made to perform better by providing the power supply with the help of battery source which can be rechargeable or non-rechargeable, to reduce the requirement of main ac power. 6) time bound administration of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides can be introduced. 7) a multi-controller system can be developed that will enable a master controller along with its slave controllers to automate multiple greenhouses simultaneously.
Key technologies Used in this project: pcb designing
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student
i want description about the schematic diagram of the system
Subharti Institute Of Technology And Engineering
Degree: B.Tech/B.E.
Branch: Electronics
Project guide(s)
Er.Neha Jain
Class Coordinator, subharti institute of Tech.& Eng.
Team member(s)
B.Tech/B.E., Electronics
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